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Full text of "Military organization of the United States"

Military Organization 

OF THE 

United States 



THE GENERAL SERVICE SCHOOLS 
FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS 




Revised November, 1923 



THE GENERAL SERVICE SCHOOLS PRESS 

FcRT Leavenworth, Kansas 

870— 3-15-27— SM 



19 2 7 



First published, September 1922 

Second edition, revised November, 192S 

Third edition, January, 1925 

Reprinted August, 1925 

Reprinted January, 1926 

Reprinted November, 1926 

Repriyited February, 1927 



Prefa 



ce 



This pamphlet is prepared by The Command and Gen- 
eral Staff School, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, for the pur- 
pose of presenting in convenient form the announced policies 
and basic principles of military organization. It gives a 
brief outline of the general organization of the land forces 
of the United States, including a theater of war. It pre- 
sents in considerably more detail the projected war organi- 
zation of tactical formations, the functions of commanders 
and staffs, and the system of administration. It is a refer- 
ence book rather than a text. 

Organization for national defense affects the whole 
population. The obligation of every citizen to serve in the 
defense of the United States is an accepted principle. This 
places in military formations or categories all citizens who 
are able to perform service. The value of the forces so 
formed depends on the soundness of organization and on the 
individual and collective spirit, power, and will of our people. 
In war personal sacrifice extends to each family, as war 
affects deeply each town and village. Therefore, a democ- 
racy through its realization of the self-imposed horrors 
strives to avoid war, and our nation has generally been 
able to suppress efforts to bring on needless conflict with its 
consequent suffering; But when war is unavoidable, de- 
feat is more bitter and more costly than success. In a na- 
tion possessing the resources of the United States, early 
success in war is insured by sound preparation. The most 
important form of preparation in time of peace is thorough 
provision for a war organization. 

Thorough organization for national defense contributes 
to success in war, and what is more important, tends to pre- 
vent war. A nation is slow to attack another which is 
known to be prepared for national defense. 

The organization of the several arms, branches, and ser- 
vices is given in Tables of Organization, W. D. The text- 

3 



4 PREFACE 

books, Tactics and Technique of the Separate Branches, 
Volumes I and II, G. S. S., discuss and amplify the organi- 
zation in detail. The strength, composition, and functional 
interdependence of the basic units and the association of 
these units into larger tactical commands are based on ex- 
perience and the special equipment of the branch. Organi- 
zation depends on the technique of the particular arm and 
the method adopted for its employment in combat. To 
understand the principles of the organization of a small 
unit, it is necess-ary to know the functions of the unit, the 
powers and limitations of the weapons with which it is 
armed, and the best means of utilizing this armament in the 
performance of its functions under probable conditions of 
combat. This pamphlet treats of the reason for all military 
organization and the purpose of combining the efforts of 
tactical and administrative units to secure the battle success 
of the whole. Such a framework of the authorized and pro- 
jected military organization of the United States is pre- 
sented to the reader in order that he may early visualize 
and grasp the complete picture. 

Egbert H. Allen, 
Colonel of Infantry {D,0, L.), 

Assistant Commandant. 
Approved; 

HARRY A. SMITH, 

Brigadier General, U. S. Army, 
Commandant. 



C ontents 



SECTION I 

Pages 

Introduction 7-16 

Purpose of Organization — Military Policy — Land Forces of 
the United States — Regular Army — National Guard — 
Organized Reserves. 



SECTION II 

Organization and Direction 17-21 

Basis of Organization — Classification of Troops — Organiza- 
tion in Peace — Peace to War Footing — The War Depart' 
ment. 

SECTION III 

Territorial Organization 22-26 

Theater of War — Zone of Interior — Theater of Operations — 
Communications Zone — Sections of the Communications 
Zone — Combat Zone — Coast Defense. 



SECTION IV 

Tactical Organization 27-35 

Functions of Large Units — General Headquarters — Groups 
of Armies — The Army — The Corps — The Division — The 
Cavalry Division — Special Troops^ — The Combined Arms 
and Branches. 

SECTION V 

Command 36-46 

Basis of Command — Exercise of Command — Principles of 
Command— Staff Principles— The General Staff—Tech- 
nical and Administrative Staff — Staffs of Lower Units 
— Signal Communication. 

SECTION VI 

Organization for Administration 47-54 

Administration — System of Supply — System of Evacuation 
and Hospitalization — Transport System — Diagram of 
the Organization of the Supply System. 

Index 55-58 



Military Organization 



Paragraphs 

Section I. — Introduction 1- 6 

II. — Organization and Direction 7-11 

III. — Territorial Organization 12-18 

IV.— Tactical Organization 19-27 

v.— Command 28-35 

VI. — Organization for Administration 36-39 



Section I 

Introduction 

Paragraph 

Purpose of organization 1 

Military policy 2 

Land forces of the United States 3 

Regular Army 4 

National Guard 5 

Organized Reserves 6 



1. Purpose of Organization. — a. Organization is the 
act of disposing, arranging, and combining constituent or 
interdependent parts into an organic and coordinated whole. 
Military organization comprises the correct and systematic 
arrangement of the man-power and economic resources of a 
nation for the accomplishment of a definite purpose. It pro- 
vides that combination and unity of effort essential to suc- 
cess in war. The character, form, strength, and method 
of organization are dictated by the military needs of the 
nation, but, so far as practicable, they are made to conform 
to the economical, financial, social, and political factors of 
the country. Thus, these considered together, dictate the 
formulation of essential national policies, military laws, and 
departmental regulations. Based on regulations, tables of 
organization are prepared for all units and branches, both 
in peace and war. Other regulations prescribe the terri- 
torial organization for command and administration and 
define the method of extending this organization to meet 
war conditions. 



8 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

b. Organization for war implies thorough and sound 
preparation therefor. Thorough preparation includes a cor- 
rect organization of all arms, branches, and services, and 
plans for the transition of the nation from a peace to a war 
basis. Sound preparation results from the appreciation of 
correct conclusions as to the resources of the country, the 
characteristics of the people, and the lessons taught by 
experiences in prior wars. 

2. Military Policy. — a. War between nations results 
from a conflict of national aspirations. National aspira- 
tions conflict as a result of racial, political, economical, and 
commercial competition or rivalries. These are questions 
of national policy. The national policy of a government 
dictates the character of its military policy. A sound mili- 
tary policy comprises the adoption and application of mea- 
sures necessary for national defense and for the protection 
and the promotion of national policies. 

b. Preparation and organization, for war are based pri- 
marily on military requirements. Military requirements de- 
pend on the force needed by a nation to maintain its sover- 
eignty, to promote its national aspirations, and to defend 
its national policies. The size and character of the force 
required are dictated largely by the extent to which national 
aspirations and policies conflict with the aspirations and 
policies of other nations. Preparation for war results from 
a correct national and governmental appreciation of mili- 
tary requirements and from the adoption and application of 
B, military policy to meet these requirements. 

c. The essential of a military policy is a correct scheme 
of national defense, supported by governmental provisions 
for its execution. The provisions for its execution com- 
prise the necessary armament, equipment, and organized 
and trained man-power with which to conduct a war, and 
the efficient adaptation of national resources and industries 
to supply the provisions and munitions of war. The prep- 
aration, organization, mobilization, and operation of the 
national military resources made available by the govern- 
ment are functions of the War Department. 

d. The military policy of the United States contemplates 
the maintenance of a small and highly trained peace es- 
tablishment, consisting of the Regular Army, the National 



INTRODUCTION 9 

Guard, and the Organized Keserves, all so organized and 
trained as to provide the framework on which the required 
man-power of the nation is mobilized, trained, armed, 
equipped, and supplied, and the necessary resources of the 
nation are organized. In addition, provisions exist for vol- 
untary partial training of a part of the young men of the 
nation by brief and intensive training camp courses and 
by training in high schools, colleges, and universities 
throughout the country. The agencies for voluntary mili- 
tary training include at present, the Reserve Officers* Train- 
ing Corps and the Citizens' Military Training Camps. 

3. Land Forces. — The military forces of the United 
States consist of all citizens of the United States, male and 
female, who are able to render military service in any capac- 
ity, direct or indirect, as combatants or non-combatants. 
The organized land forces of the United States consist of 
the Regular Army, the National Guard, and the Organized 
Reserves. These three components of our military forces 
have a common mission — elements welded into an harmoni- 
ous and efficient whole — and constitute the Army of the 
United States. The Regular Army, the National Guard, 
and the Organized Reserves form, respectively, the first, 
second, and third echelons of this army. These are coordi- 
nated echelons, and each reinforces the other. They will 
not be used as replacements one for the other, except in 
the case of unassigned officers of the Organized Reserves, 
who may be assigned to the Regular Army. Each echelon 
is distinct in its status and each has a specific mission, but 
at the same time is a necessary and correlated part of the 
national military system. In an emergency requiring the 
maximum mobilization, the three echelons will furnish six 
field armies, each army consisting of two cavalry divisions 
and three, corps each composed of three divisions. In ad- 
dition to the field armies, each echelon will supply its pro 
rata share of the General Headquarters Reserve units, and 
of the personnel necessary for the communications zone and 
the zone of the interior. Of the six field armies the Regular 
Army vdll furnish one, the National Guard two, and the 
Organized Reserves three. This scheme of mobilization 
contemplates, in principle, the initial employment of each 
echelon in succession, but ultimately combines them into 



10 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

one effective and homogenous force. The first echelon, the 
Regular Army, from the beginning opposes an invasion and 
thus gains time for the second echelon, the National Guard, 
to complete its mobilization and preparation and come to 
the assistance of the Regular Army. These two echelons, 
together, undertake to gain further delay in order to permit 
the third echelon, the Organized Reserves, to be mobilized, 
assembled, and trained. This plan precludes any adverse 
decision at the beginning of a v^ar and permits, without in- 
terruption, the development of such additional military 
forces as the particular emergency may require. 

4. Regular Army. — a. The Regular Army constitutes 
the permanent military force. Its peace time strength, 
which is prescribed by Congress, is such as is deemed neces- 
sary to enable it to fulfill its special functions in peace and 
war. These functions in general are to provide : 

(1) Garrisons for the continental frontiers of the 
United States. 

(2) A covering force in case of a major war. 

(3) A small but highly trained and completely equipped 
expeditionary force. 

(4) Overseas garrisons. 

(5) Garrisons for the permanent seacoast defenses. 

(6) A national police force. 

(7) Personnel for the development and training of the 
Regular Army and the National Guard. 

(8) Training cadres and other enlisted and commis- 
sioned personnel for the development and training of the 
Organized Reserves. 

(9) An organization for the administration and sup- 
ply of the peace time establishment. 

b. The organization is based on a war establishment 
within the continental limits of the United States compris- 
ing nine divisions, two cavalry divisions, and corps, army, 
General Headquarters Reserve, harbor defense, communica- 
tions zone, and zone of interior units. In time of peace, 
these organizations are maintained part on an active status 
and part on an inactive status, depending on the strength 
authorized by annual appropriations. 

c. The active units consist of several divisions, rein- 
forced brigades, and other troops, all maintained at a re- 



vAc2 




INTRODUCTION 13 

duced strength but so equipped and trained as to permit 
immediate emplojnnent in case of emergency. These units 
are stationed so as to provide for training activities and to 
facilitate mobilization. 

d. The inactive or "paper" units are associated with 
particular active units in order to provide a cadre therefor 
and to facilitate reconstitution. 

5. National Guard. — a. The National Guard consists 
of an active and a reserve force. It is composed of enlisted 
citizens betv^een eighteen and forty-five years of age and 
of commissioned officers betv^een twenty-one and sixty-four 
years of age, who are enlisted and commissioned, armed 
and equipped, in accordance with Federal laws and regula- 
tions. The maximum authorized strength of the active 
National Guard is prescribed by Congress. No limitations 
are placed on the strength of the National Guard Reserve. 

b. The National Guard has two aspects, first, as consti- 
tuting the organized militia of the State to which it pertains 
and, second, as a component of the Army of the United 
States. 

(1) As the organized militia, it constitutes the organ- 
ized military man-power of the State to which it pertains. 
As such it may be employed by the State vdthin limitations 
defined by the Constitution of the United States and Fed- 
eral legislative enactments. It may, also, be called forth 
by the United States to execute the laws of the Union, sup- 
press insurrections, and repel invasions. When it is so 
called forth, it is militia in the service of the United States 
and can only be used for the services specified in the Con- 
stitution and within the continental limits of the United 
States. 

(2) As a component of the Army of the United States, 
it becomes the National Guard. It is supported wholly or 
in part by Federal appropriations and is given close Federal 
supervision. Likewise, when authorized by Congress, the 
President may draft any and all members of the National 
Guard and of the National Guard Reserve into the military 
service of the United States, to serve therein for the period 
of the war or emergency, unless sooner discharged. Also, 
the Secretary of War, under such regulations as the Presi- 
dent may prescribe, is authorized to provide for the partici- 



INTRODUCTION 15 

pation of the whole or any part of the National Guard in 
encampments, maneuvers, and other training exercises, 
either independently or in conjunction with Regular Army 
troops. 

c. The organization of all units of the National Guard 
is the same as that of the Regular Army. The President 
prescribes the particular unit or units of each branch of 
the service to be maintained in each state, territory, or the 
District of Columbia, and assigns these units to divisions, 
brigades, and other tactical units. The basis of this assign- 
ment contemplates an ultimate war establishment of eight- 
een divisions, four cavalry divisions, and other units. In 
time of peace these units have a reduced or ''maintenance" 
strength. 

d. On the outbreak of war, the National Guard supple- 
ments the Regular Army in constituting the first line of 
defense. 

6. Organized Reserves. — a. The Organized Reserves 
consist of the Officers' Reserve Corps, the Enlisted Reserve 
Corps, and the Organized Reserve Units. They include 
troops of all branches necessary to supplement the Regular 
Army and National Guard in order to complete the first 
line of defense in a mobilization of the Army of the United 
States. In time of peace, they are a potential, rather than 
an actual fighting force. The peace establishment is capa- 
ble of rapid expansion by the reception of trained and un- 
trained men, but will require a period of training in mobili- 
zation areas before becoming available for combat opera- 
tions. 

h. The Officers' Reserve Corps is composed of selected 
citizens who voluntarily accept commissions in that corps 
as general officers and as officers of all grades of the line 
and staff branches of the army. It provides the great mass 
of officers required for war. In time of a national emer- 
gency expressly declared by Congress, the President may 
order reserve officers to active duty for any period of time. 
Under other circumstances, he may order them to active 
duty at any time, but for not more than fifteen days in one 
calendar year without the consent of the officer concerned. 

c. The Enlisted Reserve Corps is composed of persons 
voluntarily enlisted for service in this corps. Members of 



16 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

the Enlisted Reserve Corps may be placed on active duty in 
the same manner as are members of the Officers' Reserve 
Corps. 

d. The Organized Reserve Units are composed of offi- 
cers of the Officers' Reserve Corps, enlisted men of the En- 
listed Reserve Corps, supplemented by a small cadre of offi- 
cers and enlisted men of the Regular Army. The projected 
war establishment consists of twenty-seven divisions, six 
cavalry divisions, the required corps, army. General Head- 
quarters Reserve, and harbor defense troops, and the major 
portion of the communications zone and zone of interior 
troops. In peace time. Organized Reserve units are main- 
tained as cadres, with a war strength complement of offi- 
cers and a limited number of noncommissioned officers. This 
personnel constitutes the nucleus of the war time unit. The 
units are localized, as nearly as practicable, so as to consti- 
tute complete higher units. 



SECTION II 
Organisation and Direction 

Paragraph 

Basis of organization 7 

Classification of troops 8 

Organization in peace 9 

Peace to war footing 10 

The War Department 11 



7. Basis of Organization. — a. The organization of the 
land forces of the United States in both peace and war is 
based on territorial and tactical considerations. 

h. Territorial organization is primarily for the purpose 
of decentralization of administrative and tactical operations. 
The command of organized territorial areas includes ad- 
ministrative and tactical command of all troops therein, 
unless specially exempted by higher authority. 

c. Tactical organization is based on tactical employ- 
ment and on command. Organization for tactical employ- 
ment is based on the character of service that the various 
units perform separately and collectively. Organization for 
command is based on the factors of control, discipline, and 
administration. In the organization of all units lower than 
the division, the requirements of command in battle exer- 
cise a controlling influence, those requirements being har- 
monized, so far as practicable, with those of tactical em- 
ployment. In the organization of the division and all higher 
units, the requirements of tactical employment are of pri- 
mary importance. 

8. Classification of Troops. — a. The army is com- 
posed of tv^o distinct types of troops, namely : 

(1) Combatant. This classification includes all the 
combatant branches as prescribed in Anny Regulations. 
The commissioned personnel of the combatant branches are 
Line Officers. 

(2) Administrative. This classification includes all 
the personnel, supply, and technical branches. The com- 
missioned personnel belonging to these branches, or de- 
tailed thereto under the provisions of lav7, are Administra- 
tive Officers, 

17 



18 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

b. Most of the combatant and administrative branches 
have administrative, supply, or technical functions in addi- 
tion to their normal functions. However, in organization 
and operation, each of these branches maintains a clear dis- 
tinction between its two functions, thereby avoiding confu- 
sion in control, administration, and operation, externally 
and internally. 

c. Troops of the combatant branches are organized into 
tactical units, many of which, such as a company, regiment, 
division, and army, have administrative as well as tactical 
functions. The corps, except when operating independently, 
has administrative functions as regards corps troops only. 
Each of these units, therefore, includes within its organiza- 
tion the necessary personnel, supply, and technical agencies 
to perform the corresponding functions. Other than the 
medical department, which provides medical personnel for 
all units of the combatant and administrative branches, the 
personnel of the administrative branches normally do not 
constitute an inherent part of units below the division, and 
usually are not assigned to duty therewith. In these lower 
units the administrative functions generally are performed 
by combatant troops. 

9. Organization in Peace. — a. In peace, the Regular 
Army, the National Guard, and the Organized Reserves, are 
at all times organized, so far as practicable, into brigades, 
divisions, and corps. The peace organization forms the 
basis for a complete and immediate mobilization for national 
defense in the event of a national emergency declared by 
Congress. 

b. For purposes of administration, training, and tacti- 
cal control, the area within the continental limits of the 
United States is divided on a basis of military population 
into corps areas. Each corps area contains at least one 
division of National Guard, and one or more of Organized 
Reserves, and such other troops as may be directed. 

c. The possessions of the United States lying without 
its continental limits are organized into territorial depart- 
ments and are provided with garrisons of Regular Troops. 
The functions of these garrisons are to maintain sovereignty, 
to provide protection for Federal property, to preserve law 



ORGANIZATION AND DIRECTION 19 

and order, and to constitute elements in the strategical 
scheme of national defense. 

d. The Corps Area and Department Commanders con- 
trol all forces and military establishments of the Regular 
Army within the territorial limits of their commands, not 
specially exempted. In accordance with policies enunciated 
by the War Department, these commanders are responsible 
for the development, organization, training, supply, and in- 
spection of the National Guard, Officers' Reserve Corps, Re- 
serve Officers' Training Corps, Enlisted Reserve Corps, and 
units of the Organized Reserves. They exercise actual com- 
mand when any of these are in the service of the United 
States, or are on active duty, within the corps area or de- 
partment. 

10. Peace to War Footing. — a. In passing from peace 
to war footing, the Regular Army is increased to war 
strength by voluntary enlistments and by the application of 
selective service. The National Guard and the National 
Guard Reserves are drafted into the military service, and 
are increased to war strength in the same manner as the 
Regular Army. The Organized Reserves are mobilized, and 
such portion of the unorganized forces as are necessary are 
brought into the service by application of selective service 
and are organized, trained, and equipped for service. In 
time of war, when specially authorized by Congress, selec- 
tive service is applied in order to secure in a just and equi- 
table manner the additional man-power required for the 
conduct of the war. 

h. Mobilization is the collection, conversion, and utiliza- 
tion of the man-power and the economic resources of a na- 
tion for the purposes of war. As limited to military organi- 
zation for war it refers only to that phase which concerns 
the personnel required for military purposes. The success- 
ful conduct of war is dependent on prompt and efficient 
mobilization. This phase of mobilization involves : 

(1) An increase of the organized units of the peace 
establishment from peace to war strength, and the assem- 
bling of these units at designated divisional or other group 
rendezvous. 

(2) The induction into the service, the assembling, or- 
ganizing, equipping, and training of the unorganized forces 
required for the conduct of the war. 



20 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

c. For units organized and existing at approximate 
authorized peace strength on the date of mobilization, the 
general scheme of mobilization comprises : 

(1) The mobilization of Regular Army divisions at 
designated division mobilization points and areas, before 
final assembly in the concentration area preparatory to ac- 
tive operations. 

(2) The mobilization of Regular Army and Organized 
Reserve army and corps troops at designated army and 
corps mobilization areas. 

(3) The mobilization of National Guard divisions, 
first by battalions or regiments in battalion or regimental 
areas, and then at designated division mobilization areas 
prior to assembly in the concentration area. 

(4) The mobilization of National Guard army and 
corps troops, first in company, battalion, or regimental 
areas and then at designated army and corps mobilization 
areas. 

(5) The mobilization of Regular Army, National 
Guard, and Organized Reserve communications zone and 
zone of the interior troops at designated locations. 

(6) The mobilization of Organized Reserve divisional 
troops at designated division rendezvous and training cen- 
ters. 

(7) The mobilization of volunteer recruits received 
during the period of transition from peace to a war basis 
at designated reception centers. 

d. Plans are also prepared for the subsequent mobiliza- 
tion at designated centers of all unorganized personnel re- 
quired to increase units already mobilized to a war strength, 
to organize new units, and to constitute a reserve of re- 
placements. 

e. On the declaration of a major emergency the cover- 
ing forces, consisting of necessary peace strength units of 
the Regular Army and the National Guard, proceed with 
their war strength unit equipment to the theater of opera- 
tions. At the same time the man-power and war supply 
mobilization machinery is set in operation. During the 
period of transition from a peace basis, the normal peace 
recruiting and supply activities, energized to the maximum, 
continue to function. The time necessary for the transition 



ORGANIZATION AND DIRECTION 21 

is determined beforehand and is accomplished in accordance 
with a prearranged schedule. Units, not a part of the cover- 
ing force, proceed from their rendezvous to their mobiliza- 
tion areas on a schedule. All individuals from selective 
service boards or recruiting stations are sent to designated 
reception centers. 

11. The War Department. — a. Congress declares war 
and makes available the resources and man-power with 
which to conduct the war. The President fixes the objects 
to be attained and insures the availability and cooperation 
of the military forces and economic resources for the prose- 
cution of the war. 

6. Under instructions from the President, the War De- 
partment prepares, mobilizes, and organizes the national 
military resources and man-power made available by Con- 
gress, and, in accordance with the objects and policies speci- 
fied by the President, prescribes the general method of em- 
ployment of the army and the measures for maintaining the 
field forces. It designates the theater or theaters of opera- 
tions, allocates the various articles of supply, and establishes 
priorities to meet the military situation. It directs and co- 
ordinates the efforts of the administrative branches, leav- 
ing matters of operation to the chiefs thereof. 

c. Plans are prepared by the War Department General 
Staff for the organization of the national defense and for 
the mobilization of the man-power and material resources 
of the nation. It investigates and reports upon all matters 
affecting the efficiency of the military forces and their state 
of preparedness for war. It renders professional aid to 
the Secretary of War and the Chief of Staff. It prepares 
studies of various theaters of operations, and devises meth- 
ods to meet the various situations that may arise to menace 
the safety and well-being of the nation. On the outbreak of 
war, the Chief of Staff becomes the commander of the field 
forces. The War Plans Division with the addition of per- 
sonnel from the Arm^y War College and from the adminis- 
trative and supply branches, constitutes the General Head- 
quarters Staff. The remainder of the War Department Gen- 
eral Staff, under the Deputy Chief of Staff, concerns itself 
exclusively with the operations of the zone of the interior. 



SECTION III 
"Territorial Oro-anizaiion 

Paragraph 

Theater of war 12 

Zone of interior 13 

Theater of operations . 14 

Communications zone 15 

Sections of the communications zone 16 

Combat zone 17 

Coast defense 18 



12. Theater of War. — The theater of war comprises 
the entire area of land and sea which is, or which may be- 
come, involved in the operations of war. That part of the 
theater of war within the field of operations of each belliger- 
ent is divided into a zone of the interior and theaters of 
operations. See diagram. Section VI. 

13. Zone of Interior. — a. The zone of the interior 
generally comprises that part of the national territory not 
included in the theater of operations. It may include allied 
territory or hostile occupied territory. The mission of the 
zone of interior is to exploit and develop the national re- 
sources in men and material required for military purposes 
and to supply the means required by the commander of the 
field forces at such times, in such quantities, at such places, 
and in such a manner and form as will insure to him the 
freedom of action necessary for the accomplishment of his 
mission. 

h. Commanders of the corps and army areas within the 
zone of the interior command all troops and establishments 
located within their respective areas, which are not specifi- 
cally excepted from such command by War Department or- 
ders. They are responsible for the defense of their areas, 
for the establishment and proper functioning of mobiliza- 
tion and concentration camps, and of training and replace- 
ment centers, located within their areas. They are also re- 
sponsible for the induction into the service, the training, 
equipping, supply, organization, and dispatch to concentra- 
tion or other camps, as ordered by the War Department, of 
all forces raised within their respective areas. 

22 



TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION 23 

c. In the case of overseas expenditions, ports of em- 
barkation are reestablished in the zone of the interior where 
marine transportation is utilized for troops and supplies. 

14. Theater of Operations. — a. A theater of opera- 
tions covers the part of the theater of war that is organized 
for combat. It comprises all the territory that it is desired to 
i'nvade, all that it is necessary to defend, and all that which 
is necessary for the supply establishments pertaining to the 
forces in the theater of operations. It may be in friendly or 
hostile territory. More than one theater of operations may 
be organized when it is necessary to carry on separate opera- 
tions at great distances from each other, each having dif- 
ferent lines of communications and separate missions. 

b. The theater of operations is designated by the War 
Department after a consideration of the military geography 
of the theater of war, the determined strategical policy, the 
desired lines of action, and the availability of communica- 
tions. Plans for the organization of the theater of opera- 
tions are made prior to the outbreak of hostilities. They in- 
clude the measures to be taken to assure the strategical con- 
centration of the army, and the establishment of lines of com- 
munication. 

c. The boundary between the theater of operations and 
the zone of the interior is located so that only such territory 
as is necessary for the efficient prosecution of operations, 
including the immediate supply of the troops therein, is 
placed in the theater of operations. When the theater of 
operations is on the American continent, it includes the con- 
centration area, and the area required for the activity of the 
field forces, including the communications zone. An offen- 
sive war plan of operations on the American continent pro- 
vides the minimum of national territory in the theater. A 
defensive war plan provides depth sufficient to insure room 
for maneuver, echelonment of supplies, and control of civil 
administration. The forward limits of the theater of opera- 
tions are marked by the contact of the front line troops with 
those of the enemy. It depends solely upon the military 
activity and is advanced or retired depending on successes 
or reverses. The lateral boundaries are determined by the 
size of the contending forces, the plan of campaign, fron- 



24 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

tiers of neutral states, and the attitude of the population. 
Sufficient breadth is provided to secure room for maneuver, 
security of flanks, and operation of lines of communication. 

d. Troops are assigned to each theater of operations by 
the commander of the field forces. They consist of such 
numbers and such types as are required to accomplish the 
mission assigned. If there is more than one theater of opera- 
tions, the commander of each operates under the general in- 
structions of the commander of the field forces, who may or 
may not command the principal theater in person. 

e. The function of the headquarters of a theater of 
operations is strategical as regards combat and executive as 
regards administration. Subject to the general direction of 
the commander of the field forces, the commander of a thea- 
ter of operations controls the conduct of campaigns and 
questions of administration within his theater. 

/. The theater of operations may be divided for the pur- 
poses of combat and decentralization of administration into a 
combat zone and a communications zone. The boundary be- 
tween these two zones is located so as to place all territory 
occupied by army troops and establishments under control 
of army commanders ^n_d all territory in rear thereof under 
control of the commander of the communications zone. In an 
advance, the boundary is moved forward from time to time 
so as to enable the communications zone to take over the ad- 
ministration of new territory and to keep the supply system 
in close touch with the armies in the combat zone. 

15. Communications Zone. — a. The communications 
zone is that part of the theater of operations which contains 
the primary establishments of supply and evacuation, lines 
of communications, and other agencies required for the im- 
mediate support and maintenance of the troops in the theater 
of operations of which it forms a part. It connects the com- 
bat troops with the zone of the interior. 

b. The communications zone includes all territory be- 
tween the rear boundary of the theater of operations and the 
combat zone. Laterally it includes all the area necessary to 
provide for the proper operation of supply, hospitalization, 
and transportation facilities, and evacuation, and for the 
defense of the line of communications. It usually coincides 



TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION 25 

with the lateral boundaries of the theater of operations. The 
prime essential is that it meet and fit in with the plan of 
operations and that it be based on a careful study of the 
actual conditions especially as to routes of transportation 
in the theater of operations. 

c. The mission of the communications zone is to relieve 
the combatant forces from every consideration except that 
of defeating the enemy. 

16. Sections of the Communications Zone. — In order 
to secure centralized control and decentralized operation of 
supply, administration, and defense, the communications 
zone may be subdivided territorially into one or more base 
sections. When the depth of the zone is considerable, there 
is normally an advance section. If the communications 
zone is very extensive, an intermediate section may be 
established between the base and advance sections. The ex- 
tent of this subdivision is determined by the location of cen- 
ters of commerce and population, the location and direction 
of the principal lines of communications, and the number of 
activities and total personnel that can be supervised by one 
staff. 

17. Combat Zone. — The combat zone comprises that 
part of the theater of operations required for the operations 
of the combatant forces in contact with the enemy. It is 
divided into army areas, each army area into an army ser- 
vice area and an army combat area. The latter is divided into 
corps areas, and these in turn into division areas. Each 
army, corps, and division area covers the area of operations 
of the unit to which it pertains and is under control of the 
commander thereof. An army service area normally covers 
the territory between corps rear boundaries and the forward 
boundary of the communications zone, and is established for 
the purpose of relieving the army commander and staff from 
questions of administration of troops not in immediate con- 
tact with the enemy. When the armies are formed into 
groups, the army service areas of the constituent armies may 
be combined into one area for the group. 

18. Coast Defense. — a. Coast defense includes the in- 
stallations, dispositions, and operations to meet hostile at- 
tacks directed against any portion of the seacoast of the con- 



26 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

tinental United States, the Panama Canal, or the insular pos- 
sessions. 

b. Seacoast areas are divided into sectors, each sector 
usually including one or more harbor defense and certain 
unfortified areas, or areas containing only light field works 
or other provisional defenses. The limits of defense sectors 
are prescribed by the War Department. Each harbor de- 
fense constitutes a strong point and not an isolated point to 
be defended. The system of defense comprises harbor de- 
fense and mobile defense. 

(1) Harbor defense includes dispositions and opera- 
tions for the defense of a limited portion of the seacoast, 
ordinarily confined to important harbors. Such dispositions 
include fixed armament and its accessories, and the necessary 
garrison. Harbor defense has the mission, within the sea 
and the land areas covered by its armament, of denying the 
eneniy possession of the areas and their facilities, of pre- 
venting destruction or the serious injury by bombardment of 
the harbor utilities, and of providing an area off the harbor 
entrance in which naval and merchant vessels are afforded 
protection from all forms of attack. 

(2) Mobile defense includes dispositions and operations 
for the defense of the seacoast. Its mission is to prevent the 
enemy from landing and securing a permanent footing on 
any part of the beach. The strength of this defense depends 
on the proper utilization of mobile field forces. 



• Section IV 
Tactical Organization 

Paragraph 

Functions of large units 19 

General Headquarters 20 

Groups of armies 21 

The army 22 

The corps ^ 23 

The division 24 

The cavalry division : 25 

Special troops 26 

The combined arms and branches 27 



19. Functions of Large Units. — The full power of 
the armed forces of the United States is exerted only when 
all of the parts act in close combination and under the co- 
ordination of the supreme commander in the theater of 
operations. The strategical and tactical organization of the 
military forces may include a general headquarters, groups 
of armies, armies, corps, divisions, and air and cavalry 
divisions, depending on the theaters of operations, the gen- 
eral strategical situation, and the size of the forces engaged, 
and such special troops as may be required. 

20. General Headquarters. — a. The headquarters of 
the commander of the field forces is the General Headquar- 
ters, see paragraph 14 e. It comes into existence on the out- 
break of war. It is composed of the commander, his staff, 
headquarters troops, an air division, and the General Head- 
quarters Reserve. 

6. The commander of the field forces exercises control 
over the entire theater of war, regulating and coordinating 
the operations of the several theaters of operations in ac- 
cordance with the general policies prescribed by the Presi- 
dent and under the general directions of the Secretary of 
War. The commander of the field forces specifies the per- 
sonnel and supplies required for the field forces, requests 
their allocation, and establishes policies for their distribu- 
tion to the theaters of operations. 

c. The General Headquarters Reserve is initially con- 
trolled by the general headquarters. It comprises those 
troops which, in kind or amount, are not habitually required 

27 



28 



MILITARY ORGANIZATION 



in an army, or those which are required by an army only 
when it is operating independently. Units of the General 
Headquarters Reserve are allotted by the commander of the 
field forces to theaters of operations in accordance with their 
relative requirements and the changes in the strategical 
situation. Within each theater allotment is made to armies 
or groups of armies, as may be necessary to furnish ad- 
ditional special troops of the types and strength for the 
particular operation involved. 

21. Groups of Armies. — Two or more armies may be 
organized into a group of armies under a designated com- 
mander. This is advisable when the front of the theater of 
operations is so extended or the number of armies is so 
large as to be difficult of direct control by one headquarters, 
or when the armies are separated by obstacles, or the strateg- 
ical mission of the forces in one part of the theater is dis- 
tinct from that in others. The commander of each group, 
assisted by an appropriate staff, directs the combat opera- 
tions of his group under the general instructions of the com- 
mander of the theater of operations. The headquarters of 
a group of armies has no administrative functions. 

Typical Organization of an Army 



Two or more corps temporarily assigned 



ARMY HEADQUARTERS 



Special Troops 



Signal Service 



Engineer Service 



Medical Service 



Ordnance 



Army Train 



ARMY CAVALRY 



ARMY ARTILLERY 



1 cav div 



1 cav div 



Combat artillery from GHQ reserve. 
1 Antiaircraft artillery brigade 
Ammunition train (6 cos) 



ARMY AIR SERVICE 



Headquarters — 
1 hq sq 
1 com sec 
1 adrm co 



Air Force — 
1 attk wg, including 
1 pur gp 
1 attk gp 



Observation AS 

1 obsn gp 
Attached 

1 ord CO (maint) 



TACTICAL ORGANIZATION 
Typical Organization of a Corps 



29 



Two or more divisions temporarily assigned 



CORPS HEADQUARTERS 



Special Troops 

Headquarters company 

Military police battalion (4 cos) 

Signal battalion (3 cos) 

Ordnance companies (1 hv maint and 1 am) 

Field remount depot (400 animals) 

Service battalion (Hq and 4 cos) 



FIELD ARTILLERY BRIGADE 



1 regt 

(155-mm. 

howitzer) 










Obsn (flash) bn 








Corps Air Service 


1 obsn gp, less 2 obsn 

sqs 
1 bin gp (4 bin cos) 






1 Med regt 





1 regt 

(155-mm. 

howitzer) 



1 regt 

(155-mm. 

gun) 



Corps Train 





1 regt 

(155-mm. 

howitzer) 










Ammunition Train 




6 transport btries, of 
144 cargo trucks, 

3 ammunition btries, 
1 ord CO, attached 






Antiaircraft (CAC) regt 


1 A-A gun bn (12 guns 
and 12 searchlights) 
1 MG bn (48 guns) 








Engineer Service 



22. The Army.— a. An army is composed of a head- 
quarters, a body of auxiliary troops and trains called army 
troops, and two or more corps temporarily assigned, the 
number of corps depending on the nature of the service re- 
quired. In addition, certain troops of the General Head- 
quarters Reserve are attached from time to time as their 
special services are needed. As thus constituted, the army 
has both territorial and tactical functions. It is organized 
in all its branches for operation and administration, and is 
capable of independent action wherever required. 

b. The army, while a strategical maneuvering force, is 
the main battle unit. It plans, directs, and maintains the 



30 



MILITARY ORGANIZATION 



battle, and at the same time executes the supply, transporta- 
tion, and hospitalization functions related thereto. It is a 
territorial and tactical unit which employs in battle, simul- 
taneously and successively, the number of corps, divisions, 
and army troops required for the various tactical situations. 

23. The Corps. — a. The corps is composed of a head- 
quarters, a body of auxiliary troops and trains called corps 
troops, and two or more infantry divisions temporarily as- 
signed, the number of divisions depending on the nature of 
the service expected of the corps. Unless acting indepen- 
dently, the administrative supply functions of the corps, ex- 
cept for corps troops, are limited to ammunition supply. 

h. The corps is a tactical and combat unit, which, by 
directing the combined fighting of its divisions and auxiliary 
troops, executes the details of major tactical operations in 
accordance with plans and orders promulgated by the army 
commander. It maintains the continuity of battle and in- 

Typical Organization of a Division 



1 Brigade 



Division 


Headquarters 




Special Troops 


1 Hq Co 
1 Sig Co 
ITkCo 


1 Ord Co 
1 Serv Co 
1 MP Co 





1 regt 




1 regt 



1 Brigade 



1 regt 



1 regt 



1 Field Artillery Brigade 



1 regt (75-mm. gun) 



1 regt (75-mm. gun) 



1 engr regt 



1 obsn sq 



1 med regt 



1 div tn 



TACTICAL ORGANIZATION 31 

sures efficient cooperation in the employment of the artillery. 
A corps guides and directs the general fighting of its divi- 
sions and supports them by fire of the corps artillery. By 
such an arrangement, continuity of action over an extended 
period is secured, and tactical missions involving several 
echelons of divisions are undertaken. 

24. The Division. — a. From a tactical and administra- 
tive viewpoint, the infantry division is the basic organiza- 
tion of an army. It comprises in its organization the essen- 
tial combatant and administrative branches, all in correct 
proportion and so organized as to make it tactically and ad- 
ministratively a self-sustaining unit. It possesses striking 
power, mobility, power of penetration, and facility for ab- 
sorption and employment of additional reinforcing units. 
It is capable of independent operations and is especially 
adaptable as a component of a higher tactical unit. When a 
component of a higher unit, its action is mainly limited to 
local tactical operations. 

b. The division is the combat and tactical maneuvering 
unit of the combined arms. Its role in battle is the execution 
of tactical missions vital to the combat success of the corps. 
The success or failure of divisions on the battlefield decides 
the issue. 

25. The Cavalry Division. — The cavalry division is the 
basic organization for the service of security and informa- 
tion of an army. It comprises in its organization the es- 
sential combatant and administrative branches to make it 
tactically and administratively a self-sustaining unit. It 
possesses fire power, considerable striking power, and a high 
degree of m_obility. It is capable of independent operations, 
or of operations as a component of other tactical units. 

26. Special Troops. — Certain special or auxiliary 
troops are assigned as component parts of divisions and 
higher units. The strength and types of these troops are 
determined in general by the number that are always essen- 
tial to enable the unit of which they are a part to fight and 
live under the most probable conditions of service. In general, 
these auxiliaries consist of artillery, air service, engineers, 
tanks, military police, signal troops, medical troops, and 
trains. Additional auxiliaries which may be needed under 



32 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

other circumstances are pooled in the corps or army troops 
or General Headquarters Reserve for use in such subordinate 
units as the situation demands. The general function of all 
special troops is to contribute to the success of the force as 
a whole by direct or indirect support or by the contribution 
of essential service. 

27. The Combined Armis and Branches. — a. General. 
— The combined employment of all arms, branches, and ser- 
vices is essential to success in battle. No one arm v^ins bat- 
tles. Organization and training are based on the principles 
of combined employment. Each branch has its special 
characteristics and functions as a separate branch and its 
special functions as one of the combined branches. The lat- 
ter function is of greater importance. While the infantry 
constitutes the basis for all battle plans and decides the final 
issue of combat, it requires the close support of the artillery 
to assist it to reach the enemy with sufficient reserve power 
so as to strike a decisive blow. Cavalry and air service 
are needed to secure information, to keep the enemy in ignor- 
ance, to provide security, and to exploit infantry success. 
Artillery is effective only in assisting the other branches, 
particularly the infantry. Cavalry and the air service are 
capable of effective action when operating alone. Engineers 
are required to facilitate the operations of the other 
branches, to insure facilities for supply, and to provide 
topographical information. Signal and communication 
troops establish the necessary communication. This princi- 
pal of combined employment and team relationship is most 
important and is essential to tactical success. All training 
during time of peace is based thereon. 

h. Infantry. — The infantry is the principal and most 
important arm. It represents the moral force of the nation 
and the army. The main object of the infantry is to close 
with the enemy. The ability and power to accomplish this 
makes infantry the decisive arm. The infantry has elements 
of other branches closely associated with it. These consti- 
tute infantry groups for combat. The infantry commanders 
are the leaders of these groups and coordinate the fighting 
powers of all arms included therein. Supported by accom- 
panying weapons — machine guns, one-pounders, light howit- 



TACTICAL ORGANIZATION 33 

zers, and tanks — they are capable of independent action. 
These groups can develop a great volume of fire in any de- 
sired direction, and, by combining fire with movement, can 
engage the enemy at a distance or can close with him in 
personal combat. The infantry forms the basis of all com- 
bat plans of the division. 

c. Artillery. — Artillery has the important role of sup- 
porting the infantry by fire. The tactics of artillery fire sup- 
port is based on immediate response to the needs. of the in- 
fantry. This fire support is regulated by the requirements 
of each situation. It generally includes short violent bom- 
bardments, harassing and interdicting fires, covering fires, 
and fires in direct support of the infantry advance, or in 
direct support of infantry engaged in repulsing the enemy. 
Counterbattery fires are an indirect means of support. In- 
timate association of artillery units with the infantry sup- 
ported is a contributing factor to the successful tactical 
functioning of the infantry-artillery team. 

(1) The division artillery, depending on the situation, 
is attached in part to infantry groups, or combined into sup- 
porting fire units. The supporting fire units are employed 
by the division commander to support by fire one or all of the 
infantry groups and to assist groups of adjacent divisions. 
They are so organized and apportioned as to be able to give 
continuous fire support to successive infantry groups made 
available from the reserves. 

(2) The primary mission of the corps artillery is the 
destruction or neutralization of hostile batteries and the 
destruction of hostile defenses. In addition, it supplements 
the division artillery in providing covering fires, in the de- 
struction of communications, obstacles, and defenses, and in 
reaching hostile troops protected by natural or artificial 
cover. Its organization is such that specific units may be as- 
signed or attached to support particular divisions. It is 
located so as to execute fire missions on any part of the corps 
front, to bring heavy concentrations on decisive points, and 
to assist the artillery of adjacent corps. 

(3) Armies are allotted artillery combat units from 
General Headquarters Reserve in such numbers and types 
as the situation demands. This artillery may be employed 



34 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

directly by the army, or may be attached to corps for use as 
corps artillery or passed on to the divisions. Usually, only 
heavy long range artillery is retained as army artillery. 
Army artillery is assigned appropriate missions beyond the 
range or power of corps artillery, and in addition, it rein- 
forces the fire of corps artillery. 

(4) The antiaircraft units of corps and armies provide 
protection against hostile aircraft throughout the respective 
corps and army areas. 

d. Cavalry. — Prior to contact the principal duties of 
cavalry are to cover the concentration of the main forces, to 
screen the advance, and to conduct distant reconnaissance. 
During combat the mass of the cavalry is kept intact so as 
to be available for employment in clinching a decision in the 
main battle, for pursuit, or for covering withdrawal. The 
principal characteristics of cavalry are mobility, fire power, 
and shock action. 

(1) When the situation demands, small cavalry forces 
are attached to corps and divisions. Cavalry so attached is 
used on strategical and tactical missions. It may be further 
subdivided by the corps and the divisions and assigned to 
elements of their own command. 

(2) Army cavalry carries out suitable army strategical 
and tactical missions. In these missions, the army cavalry 
divisions and the army air service cooperate closely, especial- 
ly in reconnoitering the hostile main forces and in screening 
the movements of the army. The army cavalry divisions 
furnish such small cavalry forces as are needed by corps and 
divisions. While detached corps and divisions may require 
attached cavalry, the detachments made from the army cav- 
alry for these purposes are limited to the minimum require- 
ments. The controlling idea is to retain at the disposal of 
the army commander for tactical operations as large a 
cavalry force as practicable. The role of the army cavalry 
includes distant and close reconnaissance, operations on the 
flanks and rear of the enemy in battle, delaying and covering 
actions, reinforcement to the battle line in emergencies, and 
the exploitation of tactical successes. Its mobility and fire 
power makes it a valuable reserve force. Cavalry is not 
suitable for continuous employment as infantry in battle. 



TACTICAL ORGANIZATION 35 

e. Air service. — The duties of the air service are to ob- 
tain information of the enemy's dispositions and movements 
by visual reconnaissance and aerial photography, to protect 
its own command from the hostile air service by driving the 
enemy from the air, and to harass the opponent by attack- 
ing his troops and sensitive points. 

(1) The division air service performs aerial observa- 
tion missions, which include visual and photographic recon- 
naissance, observation for command, adjustment of artillery 
fire, and maintenance of contact with the infantry. While 
engaged on these missions, it fights only in self-defense. 
When a division is operating independently, its air service 
may be required to perform pursuit and attack missions, 
but while so engaged, the execution of its primary mission 
of observation ceases. 

(2) The corps air service undertakes similar observa- 
tion missions and in addition supplements those of its divi- 
sions. Its balloon companies may be attached to divisions 
and to the corps artillery. 

(3) The army air service includes all aviation required 
for tactical purposes. Its air force is employed to establish 
and maintain aerial supremacy, and to insure freedom of 
action to the other air units of the army. Under protec- 
tion of the pursuit forces, the attack units, cooperating with 
ground troops, engage hostile ground forces and installa- 
tions, while observation units carry out army command and 
intelligence reconnaissance missions, assist the army cav- 
alry and artillery, and supplement the corps air service ob- 
servation units. An army observation squadron may be 
attached to each cavalry division. For special operations 
the army air service is reinforced from the General Head- 
quarters Eeserve. 

/. Engineers. — The division engineer troops are nor- 
mally employed on road work, topographical assignments, 
and the special duties of that branch. In emergencies they 
reinforce the infantry in combat. Corps engineer troops 
have the same duties and in addition supplement those of 
the division. Army engineer units, augmented as required 
from General Headquarters Reserve, are employed on road, 
railroad, bridge, camouflage, topographical, and water sup- 
ply work for the whole army. 



SECTION V 
Command 

Paragraph 

Basis of command 28 

Exercise of command 29 

Principles of command 30 

Staff principles 31 

The general staff 32 

Technical and administrative staff 33 

Staffs of lower units 34 

Signal CQ^nmunication 35 



28. Basis of Command. — a. Tactical organization for 
command is based on the progressive formation of succes- 
sive groups, the smallest group consisting of the maximum 
number of individuals which can be successfully controlled 
by one person, each successive group containing the maxi- 
mum number of the next lower groups which can be con- 
trolled by one person. 

h. Command is the authority which a person in the 
military service lawfully exercises over subordinates by 
virtue of rank or assignment. The authority to command 
is delegated by law and regulations. Ability to command, 
in the sense of the control and influence which a commander 
exercises over his troops, depends primarily on the qualifi- 
cations and personality of the commander and the extent to 
which he is able to impress that personality on his troops. 
The efficacy of command is fundamentally based on intimate 
personal contact between the commander and his troops. 

29. Exercise of Command. — a. A successful com- 
mander is a leader of men. Command and leadership are 
inseparable. The application of this principle requires 
higher commanders to keep in close touch with all subordi- 
nate units and individual members thereof by means of 
personal visits and observation. It is essential that a com- 
mander know from personal contact the mental, moral, and 
physical condition of the command; the tactical or service 
situations with which it is confronted ; its accomplishments, 
its desires, its needs, and its views; and that he promptly 

36 



COMMAND 37 

extend recognition for services well done, extend help when 
help is needed, and give encouragement in adversities, but 
never hesitate to require whatever effort is necessary to at- 
tain the desired end. 

b. As the size of the command increases, the problem 
of personal contact becomes increasingly difficult but loses 
none of its importance. It is as vital to the general who 
commands a division, a corps, or an army, to keep in person- 
al touch with the command on the battlefield, on the march, 
and in camps, as it is for the platoon leader to keep in 
personal touch with the members of his platoon. 

c. The habit of command augments both the efficiency 
to command and the power of leadership. The experienced 
commander becomes accustomed to the exercise of com- 
mand, and exercises it as a habit. His manner, voice, and 
bearing carry the expectancy of obedience. 

30. Principles of Command. — a. The exercise of 
command produces individual or collective military action 
or nonaction on the part of subordinates, regardless of the 
will of the latter. A commander of an organization or unit 
is its controlling head, and, subject to orders from a proper 
superior, is responsible for everything the command does 
or fails to do, collectively and individually. It follows, there- 
fore, that the commander of an organization must make 
his authority felt and cause his will to be obeyed by each 
individual member of the command. In the smallest unit 
this authority is exercised in person by the commander 
who gives orders to and exercises supervision over each 
member of the unit. But as units increase in size, personal 
direction and supervision of each individual is impossible, 
so resort is had to the mechanical framework of organiza- 
tion by means of which the commander, dealing directly 
with only a few subordinate commanders and they in turn 
with their subordinates, reaches every individual in the 
command. The squad corporal personally commands, 
supervises, and controls the members of the squad. The 
sergeant commands two or more squads by dealing directly 
with the corporals, and through them controls the indi- 
vidual members of the squads. And so on up through 
other units in succession to the army, each commander, in- 



38 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

sofar as the transmission of orders is concerned, dealing 
with the commanders of the next lower units. 

b. All orders and instructions from a higher unit for 
a subordinate unit are given to the commander thereof, and 
all orders and instructions for subordinate units emanate 
from their immediate commander. By this means alone 
authority and responsibility are definitely fixed and the 
channels of command definitely established. The succes- 
sion of subordinate commanders through whom a com- 
mander exercises his authority and control is known as 
the chain of command. 

c. In this grouping of units under one commander, a 
point is soon reached in the ascending scale where the 
multiplicity of details devolving upon the commander are 
too numerous to be handled in person and leave time for 
consideration of the broader phases of command, such as 
the determination and execution of plans and policies and 
the supervision of operations. Beginning at this point, 
each unit is provided with an appropriate staff. By the 
term staff is meant the personnel who help the commander 
in the exercise of the functions of command by professional 
aid and assistance. Divisions and larger units have both 
a general staff and a technical and administrative staff. 
In units below a division, the staff consists of officers and 
enlisted men assigned to duties corresponding to those of 
the staff of higher units. 

d. The introduction of the staff into a unit does not 
alter the basic principles of command and responsibility. 
General staff officers assist the commander by performing 
such duties pertaining to the functions of command as 
may be delegated to them by regulations or given them by 
the commander. Technical and administrative staff offi- 
cers assist the commander and his general staff in an ad- 
visory capacity in matters pertaining to their special arms 
or branches. The staff does not form a link in the chain 
of command, or in any other way take from or add to the 
authority and responsibility of commanders. Command, 
therefore, is exercised through a succession of subordinate 
unit commanders, the chain of command, each aided and 
assisted by various individuals and agencies, known col- 
lectively as the staff. 



COMMAND 39 

31. Staff Principles. — a. All policies, decisions, and 
basic plans, whether originating with the commander or 
with his subordinates, are authorized by the commander 
before they form the basis of further policies, decisions, 
plans, or orders. Once the commander has given his approv- 
al to any specific policy, decision, or basic plan, his staff offi- 
cers have authority to issue complementary orders in 
furtherance thereof, but not contrary thereto or in amend- 
ment thereof. 

h. The staff has but one purpose, to assist the com- 
mander in his mission. No matter how numerous the staff 
sections, or how numerous the individuals in each, there is 
but one staff. The staff prepares information for the com- 
mander, converts the ideas and wishes of the commander into 
orders, works out all matters of detail in connection there- 
with, and conveys them to the troops. It observes, antici- 
pates, and initiates any necessary action in the field to 
which it is assigned. 

c. All orders or instructions issued by a staff officer, 
as such, are issued in the name of the commander. A staff 
officer, per se, has no authority to command. There is but 
one commander, and the decentralization of functions inci- 
dent to the proper performance of staff duties is never 
permitted to constitute an excuse for departing from the es- 
tablished chain of command. 

d. The commander and his staff should be trained alike 
and have the most initimate relationship. The success of 
the command as a team, led by the commander, attended 
by the minimum of friction, discomfort, misunderstandings, 
and loss for the units of the team, is the very acme of staff 
service. 

e. A properly organized and trained staff should be kept 
intact. The personnel thereof should be changed only for 
the most urgent reasons. 

/. The functional subdivision of the staff into sections 
is not the establishment of lines where their work divides, 
but where it meets. The successful functioning of the staff 
requires coordination and collaboration within the staff as 
well as with those arms and branches with which it deals. 

g. Nothing is more important in war than unity of 
command, but, while there must be centralization of com- 



40 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

mand and all that goes with it; i.e., policies, decisions, and 
basic plans, there is decentralization of execution. The staff 
is organized and functions so as to accomplish this decentral- 
ization. 

h. The ultimate object of all staff, work is the develop- 
ment of the fighting efficiency of the troops. Staff officers 
are the servants of all and must devote themselves to the 
whole command. They must appreciate the difficulties of 
the troops under all conditions and must assist them, by 
every possible means, to carry out their missions. They 
must foresee and provide for obstacles and dangers that 
may arise. They must make the comfort of the troops para- 
mount to their own. Staff officers, as such, have no author- 
ity over the troops, and though they may be responsible for 
the issue of orders, it is essential that they should remember 
that every order transmitted by them is given by the author- 
ity and on the responsibility of the commander. This must 
be always made clear to the recipient of the order. 

i. The members of the staff of higher and lower com- 
mands, especially officers of corresponding sections, should 
be personally acquainted, work in harmony, and have a feel- 
ing of mutual dependence and coordination. Frequent con- 
ferences are essential. 

32. The General Staff. — a. Organization. — The or- 
ganization of the general staff with troops is based on a 
functional classification. It consists of: 

(1) A chief of staff section. The chief of staff is the 
first assistant and personal representative of the commander. 
He commands the unit general staff, controls and coordi- 
nates its efforts, and supervises the work of the other sec- 
tions of the staff. 

(2) The four sections, corresponding to the four func- 
tional classifications. These sections are : 

(a) A Personnel Section (First Section, G-1). 

(b) An Intelligence Section (Second Section, G-2). 

(c) An Operations and Training Section (Third Sec- 
tion, G-3). 

(d) A Supply Section (Fourth Section, G-4). 

(3) The chiefs of these four sections are assistant 
chiefs of staff and perform general staff duties by assist- 
ing the commander in exercising control over the operations 



COMMAND 41 

of all subordinate combatant and administrative units with 
special reference to the units whose duties correspond to 
those of their respective staff sections. As the organization 
of the general staff is functional, no section of the general 
staff controls the operation of any branch as such but each 
section handles the matters that pertain to it regardless of 
the branch or agency in which the subject originated. 

(4) The interior organization of the sections of the 
general staff for combatant units is prescribed by the re- 
spective chiefs in such way as to facilitate the performance 
of the functions assigned to the several sections. This or- 
ganization is based on the principle that the chief of the 
section determines all basic policies and plans, the subsec- 
tions being the means by which coordination, supervision, 
and control are exercised over the various arms and branches 
in routine matters as well as in matters coming under an 
announced policy or contemplated plan. This coordination, 
supervision, and control by subsections must be functional, 
and hence the interior organization must avoid a subdivision 
corresponding to the technical and administrative branches 
being coordinated. Any such subdivision can only result 
in the subsection becoming more or less the operator of the 
technical and administrative staff agency concerned; such 
operation by the general staff is contrary to law as well as 
to the proper conception of the reason for existence of a 
general staff. 

b. Purpose. — The general staff with troops renders pro- 
fessional aid and assistance to the commander. It acts as 
his agent in harmonizing the plans, duties, and operations 
of the various organizations and services, in preparing de- 
tailed instructions for the execution of the plan of the com- 
mander, and in supervising the execution of such instruc- 
tions. 

c. Duties under the commander. — Under the direction 
and in accordance with announced plans and policies of the 
commander, the general staff coordinates and supervises the 
efforts of the various arms and branches, avoids duplication 
of activities, and insures concerted action in the employment 
of the combined branches. It formulates and issues orders 
and instructions to carry out the commander's policies, plans, 
and decisions ; it supervises by seeing that these orders and 



42 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

instructions are carried through to conclusion; it foresees 
the needs of the command in all that relates to personnel, 
intelligence, operations, training, and supply; it prepares 
strategical, tactical, training, and supply plans in accor- 
dance with the commander's decisions; it enunciates and 
puts into effect all policies, decisions, and basic plans of the 
commander, coordinating their execution by supplementary 
or complementary plans, decisions, and orders. Finally, it 
renders the commander professional aid and assistance, 
and, like all other agencies, it serves the troops in all things 
which increases their combat efficiency. 

d. Relation to the branches. — The general staff coordi- 
nates, supervises, and controls the technical and adminis- 
trative branches by reason of its special knowledge of plans, 
tactical principles, and tactical situations. It does not oper- 
ate these agencies. In exercising this general staff control 
noninterference is the governing principle. Coordination 
only is necessary when the decision will affect two or more 
branches, or when the decision affects the tactical situation. 

e. Inter-staff relationship. — The functional classifica- 
tion of duties of general staff sections is not to be construed 
as establishing limiting lines that separate absolutely the 
duties of one section from those of another. The object is 
to insure the smooth and effective operation of the staff as 
a whole, by giving the sections sufficient elasticity to tie to- 
gether their allied functions, and by introducing enough re- 
strictive measures to prevent duplication or overlapping of 
functions by the different sections. 

33. The Technical and Administrative Staff. — The 
technical and administrative staff includes the commissioned 
and enlisted personnel of the combat arms and of the ad- 
ministrative branches assigned to staff duty. It is composed 
of a group of specialists designed to furnish advice to the 
commander and his general staff on technical matters and 
for the operation of administrative agencies. 

a. Composition. — The composition of these staffs vary 
with each headquarters, only those members being provided 
who are necessary for technical advice and the operation 
of the agencies present with the command. Technical and 
administrative staff officers, in general, are of three classes : 



COMMAND 43 

(1) Chiefs* of technical and administrative staff sec- 
tions of the unit headquarters. 

(2) Commanderst of units provided by Tables of Or- 
ganization. 

(3) Individuals.} 

b. Functions. — The functions of the technical and ad- 
ministrative staff fall under one or more of the following : 
technical advice, supply, operations of the facilities and ac- 
tivities of his branch, maintenance of materiel, and ad- 
ministration. In addition to the foregoing, certain tech- 
nical and administrative staff officers have direct command 
of combatant or administrative units, usually of those per- 
taining to their branch only. As this is not a staff function, 
these officers act in a dual capacity, both as a staff officer 
and as a commander. Their functions in the latter capacity 
differ in no way from the usual exercise of command of cor- 
responding units. 

c. Operations. — In the execution of the above functions, 
the technical and administrative staff work out policies and 
details of plans concerning their own branch that are in 
extension of policies and plans enunciated by the general 
staff for the commander. They also make suitable recom- 
mendations, through proper channels, to all commanders and 
staff officers concerned in regard to matters pertaining to 
their branch. In the method of operation of their branch 
duties, the members of the technical and administrative staff 
are governed by regulations and special instructions per- 
taining to their branch. 

d. Cooperation. — (1) Although the technical and ad- 
ministrative staff sections usually exercise their various 
functions under the coordination of the particular general 
staff section concerned, it must not be understood that such 
a staff officer is precluded from* dealing directly with the 
chief of staff or the commander when necessary. Such 
direct dealings, however, if continued for any length of time, 
will surely produce misunderstandings, conflict of authority, 
and confusion. 



* e. g. — The division quartermaster. 

t e. g. — The division engineer. 

t e. g. — The division machine gun and howitzer officer. 



44 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

(2) In their relationship with one another, the tech- 
nical and administrative staff sections work, of necessity, 
closely together, since much of the work of each ,is dependent 
upon or related to that of another. In the preparation of 
plans and projects, each section confers with the other sec- 
tions on matters in which both are concerned and thus is 
able to present the plan with as much agreement as possible. 
If unable to coordinate their individual plans satisfactorily, 
the differences are settled by the appropriate general staff 
section; in the event that more than one general staff sec- 
tion is concerned, the difference is settled by the chief of 
staff. 

(3) Staff officers must serve primarily their immediate 
commander in all things and allow no consideration what- 
soever to deflect their actions from this principle. A spirit 
of unity and thorough cooperation between the correspond- 
ing members of the technical and administrative staff of 
higher and lower units is essential to the best service. A 
direct and full understanding between them at all times adds 
greatly to celerity in the conduct of affairs. 

(4) In addition to the friendly relations which a tech- 
nical or administrative staff officer establishes with other 
members of the same staff, with analogous members on 
higher and lower staffs, and with the general staff, he should 
establish friendly relations with commanders of the combat 
units which he serves. The usual result will be that close co- 
operation is secured and the smooth and efficient operation 
of the technical branches in support of the command is in- 
sured. 

e. Channels of command. — There is but one channel of 
command. It is followed in all cases. However, after poli- 
cies and basic plans are decided and promulgated, many de- 
tails are worked out by conference between the chiefs of the 
technical and administrative staff sections and the corre- 
sponding chiefs of lower units. Notwithstanding this, when 
orders are issued they pass through the prescribed channels. 
The principle is that, in technical details or in details affect- 
ing the routine of a particular branch, or as regards the 
details of an approved and promulgated technical plan or 
project, the chiefs of technical and administrative staff 
sections confer directly with the corresponding chief of the 
next lower unit. The chiefs of higher units advise and assist 






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BASIC OQ.GANIZATIOM OF A DIVISION 3TAFF 



46 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

the chiefs of the lower units. Each chief keeps the general 
staff of his unit informed of all essential details in order 
that the commander thereof may influence action if he so 
desires. This is direct supervision. But where there are 
new policies or new projects requiring general coordination, 
the chiefs of sections of the higher unit recommend to the 
general staff of their unit the action to be taken, which, if 
approved, is promulgated in orders throughout the command 
through the regular channels. This is indirect supervision. 

34. Staffs of Lower Units. — The underlying princi- 
ple of staff function is the same for all units. There is, 
however, an important difference in staff duties between 
the lower and higher units. In the brigade and lower units 
staff officers are provided, but some of them are charged 
with functions of execution or operation in addition to their 
duties as staff officers. As staff officers they assist the unit 
commander in the exercise of command; as administrative 
officers of the unit, they operate their respective branches 
and command the personnel belonging thereto. The two 
functions are entirely separate and distinct in character, 
in methods of procedure, and in source of authority, and 
are exercised separately and independently. Staff func- 
tions of all units below the division are generally performed 
by the personnel of combatant and administrative troops. 

35. Signal Communication. — a. Signal communica- 
tion comprises all methods and means employed to transmit 
orders, reports, and other official messages, except those 
sent by mail or by personal agents. Within each unit, the 
system of signal communication is complete. However, to 
insure teamplay and coordination of effort, each such system 
is an integral part of the system of the next higher com- 
mand. Therefore, commanders exercise tactical direction 
and technical control over the signal communications of 
their subordinate tactical units. 

b. Signal communication is necessary to insure the 
transmission of information, to provide for combined effort 
and close cooperation between all elements, and then, to 
insure their successful direction during combat. Com- 
manders establish signal communication to all elements of 
their commands during action. Inability to maintain com- 
munication deprives a commander of full control of the 
forces at his disposal. 



Section VI 
Organization for Administration 

Paragraph 

Administration 36 

System of supply 37 

System of evacuation and hospitalization ^ 38 

Transport system 39 



36. Administration. — a. While the primary object of 
military organization is to facilitate command, no less im- 
portant is the organization to insure administration, or the 
supply of all which is required to maintain the combat 
troops, individually and collectively, at the highest state of 
physical, mental, and moral efficiency and strength. Ad- 
ministration comprises the organization, regulation, and con- 
trol of personnel including replacements, supply, evacua- 
tion, and transportation. 

h. The administrative branches function as agencies 
for handling personnel, and supply and technical matters. 

(1) The administrative branches constituting the per- 
sonnel agencies are charged with the routine administra- 
tion of the unit to which they belong, its correspondence, 
records, statistics, questions of personnel and others of like 
nature ; with inspections, other than tactical ; and with ques- 
tions of discipline, morale, and the spiritual welfare of the 
command. They also see that instructions as to routine 
matters are communicated throughout the command. 

(2) The administrative branches constituting the sup- 
ply and technical agencies are charged with the procurement, 
storage, transportation, and issue of supplies to the unit of 
which they are a part, with evacuation and hospitalization, 
and with the supervision and operation of the technical 
agencies of the unit. 

(3) All of these agencies are organized to conform to 
the territorial organization of the theater of war, see Sec- 
tion III. Consumption and expenditures are replaced im- 
mediately. Troops in action are relieved of all responsibility 
for procurement, transportation and maintenance of sup- 

47 



48 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

ply, and any other duties that interfere with their proper 
combat functions. 

c. The administrative branches are necessary to the 
fighting efficiency of the command. They exist solely to 
serve the combatant troops in administrative functions. They 
operate on or near the battlefield. 

(1) The military police maintains order in the rear 
of the troops in action. It prevents pillag:ing, collects 
stragglers, and protects the civilian inhabitants. Patrols 
circulate through the area. Military police regulate and 
supervise all road traffic. Traffic control posts are estab- 
lished at towns, establishments, and important places. 
Straggler posts are established in rear of troops in action. 
Stragglers are assembled at collecting points, fed, re-equip- 
ped if necessary, and sent forward to rejoin their units. 
Prisoners of war are received from the combat troops, as- 
sembled, and sent to the rear under escort. 

(2) The medical department supervises the sanitation 
of the command, and establishes and operates all necessary 
facilities and agencies for the treatment, evacuation, and 
hospitalization of the sick and wounded. Personnel and 
units are attached to all organizations above the company. 

(3) The branches having supply functions, and the 
supply and transportation echelons of combat units, are 
charged with forwarding all munitions, equipment, and sup- 
plies needed by the fighting troops. During combat, these 
operations function automatically. Ammunition from the 
rear systematically replaces that expended in battle, and 
other supplies are furnished in anticipation of the needs 
therefor. Each supply echelon keeps informed of the lo- 
cation of the echelon next in front of it, and keeps in com- 
munication therewith, so that the quantity and character of 
supplies needed can be maintained continuously at the points 
required. 

37. System of Supply. — a. The mission of the supply 
system is to accumulate munitions for the land forces of 
the United States in advance of anticipated needs, and to 
issue them to the troops when needed. This mission is 
continuous in both peace and war and embraces all supply 
activities from the determination of requirements to the 
delivery of supplies to the ultimate consumer. It is ac- 



ORGANIZATION FOR ADMINISTRATION 49 

complished by the determination of requirements ; the mobil- 
ization of industries and resources; the procurement, stor- 
age, and transportation of supplies; and the issue of sup- 
plies to the troops. 

h. The organization of the supply system is based on the 
following principles : 

(1) Combat troops are encumbered with a minimum 
of supplies, thus insuring their maximum of mobility. 

(2) Combat troops are kept constantly supplied, thus 
permitting them to devote their attention to the main task 
of defeating the enemy. 

(3) Impetus in supply comes from the rear. 

(4) Supply is based upon the needs of the troops, but 
its accomplishment conforms to available resources. 

(5) The system of supply is essentially the same in 
peace and in war, and is so organized that it functions effi- 
ciently under either condition. In war the peace organiza- 
tion is expanded to meet altered conditions. 

(6) Direction of supply is centralized and operations 
decentralized. 

(7) Subject only to the necessary centralized direc- 
tion, supply agencies have authority commensurate with 
their responsibility and, within this limitation, are free 
in the performance of their functions. 

38. System of Evacuation and Hospitalization. — a. 
The object of the evacuation and hospitalization system is 
to assist in maintaining the forces at maximum strength. 
This is accomplished by the preservation of health and the 
prompt return to duty of those who have been disabled; 
the care of the sick and wounded according to their condi- 
tion ; and the relief of troops from the necessity of caring 
for the sick and wounded. Commanders are responsible 
for the efficient operation of the system within their respec- 
tive organizations. The actual operation thereof is a func- 
tion of medical department personnel and units. 

b. Commencing at the front there is a constant sorting 
and classifying of casualties, with the primary object of 
returning those capable of performing duty to their com- 
mands at an early date, and of sending those unfit for duty 
to the hospitals where they can receive the best care. 



50 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

c. The medical personnel attached to each unit cares 
for and collects the casualties within its own area. Evacua- 
tions from the area are made by higher units. The attached 
personnel and units accompany the organization to which 
they pertain at all times. When necessary, casualties are 
left to be picked up by units in the rear. 

d. Hospitals are kept sufficiently clear of patients to 
permit the reception of new cases and to leave them free 
for movement when required. During periods of activity, 
casualties are evacuated rapidly through advance hospitals 
to the communications zone. In periods of inactivity, the 
evacuations are less numerous and less rapid. 

e. Medical establishments are set up for operation only 
as required for the situation as it exists or as foreseen to 
meet contingencies of the immediate future. Those not es- 
tablished are held in reserve. 

39. Transport System. — a. An efficient and adequate 
system of transport for military supplies and personnel is 
vital to military operations. The transport system consists 
of rail, water, motor, and animal transportation. Each type 
has its uses. The guiding principle is to use that type or 
types best suited to each situation and to augment it by 
full use of all other means available in the service of the 
command. Future needs are anticipated and plans made 
for their successful execution by the construction, repair, 
and maintenance of necessary facilities. 

6. Military operations on a large scale are based on the 
utilization of railways and waterways, including marine 
transport. 

c. Rail lines operated by the military personnel are 
called military railways. The organization of the railway 
and waterway transport in the theater of operations departs 
from civil practice in that flexibility is greater, especially 
in the forward areas, and that the nature of the service, in- 
cluding equipment, management, and structures, is governed 
by expediency rather than by economy and permanency. 
The service is centrally controlled and is subject to the de- 
mands of various military authorities as regards trans- 
portation to be furnished. 

(1) Commercial railway lines in friendly territory con- 
tinue to operate under their respective corporate officials 



ORGANIZATION FOR ADMINISTRATION 51 

whenever the military situation permits, provided they are 
efficiently operated and maintained and render satisfactory 
service. Railway transportation officers are assigned to each 
of such railways as information officers and as assistants 
of their corporate officials in handling military shipments. 
Personnel of commercial lines taken over by the military 
authorities may be used on those lines, provided the or- 
ganizations and personnel can be relied on to operate and 
maintain their lines effectively. Lines in the combat zone 
are best operated by military personnel. 

(2) All railway telephone and telegraph lines are in- 
stalled, maintained, and operated by Signal Corps personnel 
attached to the railway service for that purpose. Signal 
Corps circuits and personnel assigned to the railway service 
for this purpose are not available for other than railway 
duty, except upon specific authority of the commanding gen- 
eral, theater of operations, in each case. 

d. Light railways are light narrow gauge lines operated 
by power, horse, or hand. They are employed in the com- 
bat zone or on construction projects to facilitate transport 
from a railhead to points close to the actual front or to the 
points where construction is in progress. Such lines are 
usually of a gauge less than three feet and consist of light 
material and equipment. Their principal use is to supple- 
ment wagon and motor transport. The construction, opera- 
tion, and maintenance of light railways in the theater of 
operations are assigned to the engineer service, and in the 
combat zone to army engineers. 

e. Motor and wagon transport is divided into two 
classes : first, all vehicles operated by the transport service 
of the quartermaster corps, and second, all vehicles as- 
signed by Tables of Organization to organizations, such 
as divisions, corps, and armies, and over which the transport 
service exercises technical supervision only. 

(1) The headquarters of the theater of operations, the 
headquarters of the communications zone, and the headquar- 
ters of each section of the latter, maintains and operates a 
reserve, or pool, of quartermaster motor and wagon trans- 
port. This reserve is organized into operating units, which 
are employed for local transportation and, when necessary. 



52 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

to supplement the railway and waterway transport system. 
Motor and wagon transport are not used for the latter pur- 
pose except when the capacity of the railways and water- 
ways is insufficient to meet the demands. The amount of 
motor and wagon transport assigned for operation to any 
headquarters is the minimum required for transportation 
purposes. 

(2) The allowance of transport fixed by regulations for 
the trains of any combat unit is that needed for carrying mo- 
bile reserve supplies, for hauling supplies to the troops 
from the various establishments, and for transporting tac- 
tical units. 

/. The function of all trains is to keep the commands 
to which they are attached supplied for action at all times 
without hampering their freedom of movement. Baggage 
and other impedementa are reduced to a minimum and all 
material not actually required with the combatant field force 
is left in the rear, whence it is sent forward as required. 
Commanders of organizations are responsible that no unau- 
thorized vehicles accompany troops or trains, and that no 
unauthorized supplies or material are transported. 



LIST OF CONVENTIONAL SIGNS USED ON THE 
FOLLOW ING PLATE 



AOv 



© 

ooo 

® 

xxxx 

® 

XXX 

® 



XX 

® 

KXXX 



o 



o*^ 



.^^,«p 



>oo 



G^ 



• X X>i 

.000 
.GHa. 



Division Command Fbsf 

Rcsen/e Depot , Zone of Inferior 

3a^e Depot. CZ. 

Advance - CZ. 

Remount * CZ. 

Intermediate Depot, CZ. 

m_ m Zone oflnterio. 

Amm an i Hon » CZ. 

Salvage Depot 

Ammunition Depot, Army 
' Park , Corps 

• Dump or DP, DJv 

CLM. D^ot , Army 

•• Distributinff Point, Div. 

tngr Dump or DP Div. 
Regulating Station 
Railhead 
Refilling Point 

' Navigation ttead 

Supply Column . CZ. 
Evacuation Hospital, Army 
General Hospital, CZ. 

«■ Army Boundary 

» Corps Boundary 

■ Division Boundary 

- Communications Zone boundary 

— Boundary of Ttieater of OpcraHon^ 



OUTLINE OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 

SHOWING THE. ORGANIZATION AND CONTROL. IN A 

THEATER OF OPERATION 




Oeporfm^nfs and Corps Areas with Branch and Area Depoh. 
Supply Branches wifh fh»ir various acHvifiea. Nof all branch 
Dtfiob and cfher Achviti6s arm jhown. 



INDEX 



Page 

Adjutant 45 

Administration 47 

organization for 47-54 

Administration branches , 45 

staffs 42 

system, outline of, diagram 54 

Aides 45 

Air service commander 45 

Arms, the combined 32 

Armies, groups of 28 

Army of the United States 9 

Army, the 29 

Baggage and impedimenta 52 

Basis of command 36 

of organization^ 17 

Boundaries, theater of operations™ 23 

Branches of the service..™ 32 

Branches, administrative 17 

Casualties, sorting of 50 

Cavalry division _ 31 

Chain of command 38 

Channel of command 44 

Chaplain 45 

Chemical officer 45 

Chief of staff 45 

Classification of troops 17 

Coast defense 25 

Combatant troops 17 

Combat zone 25 

Combined arms 32 

Command 36-46 

basis of 36 

chain of 38 

channel of 44 

exercise of 36 

habit of 37 

principles of 37 

Commander, division 45 

field artillery brigade _ 45 

of the field forces 21, 27 

personal contact.^ 37 

Commanders, corps area and department 18 

Commandant, headquarters 45 

Communication, signaL_ 46 

Communications zone..._ 24 

Concentration camps 22 

Conventional signs, list of 53 

Corps area, commanders 18 

Corps areas, division into 18 

Corps, the...._ 30 

55 



56 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

Page 

Declaration of war by Congress 20 

Defense, coast 25 

Department, overseas 18 

Direction, organization and 17-21 

Division, the 31 

the cavalry 31 

Divisions of the general staff ^ 40 

Embarkation, ports of 23 

Emergency, a major 20 

Engineer officer 45 

Evacuation, system of. 49 

Exercise of command 36 

Field forces, commander of 27 

Finance officer. 45 

Forces, the land 9 

Functions of larger units 27 

Garrisons, overseas 18 

General Headquarters 27 

General Headquarters Reserve 27 

General staff ' 40 

Group of armies, the 28 

Guard, National 13 

Harbor defense 26 

Headquarters, General 27 

Hospitalization, system of 49 

Hospitals 50 

Inspector 45 

Intelligence section, general staff 40, 45 

Interior, zone of 22 

Judge advocate 45 

Land forces of the United States 9 

Large units, functions of .— . 27 

Light railways 51 

Lower units, staffs of 46 

Machine gun and howitzer officer 45 

Marine transport 50 

Medical personnel, attached 48 

Message center 45 

Military 

poHcy of the United States 8 

organization - 7 

railways 50 

Mobile defense 26 

Mobilization.... 19 

Motor transport 51 

Narrow gauge railways 51 

National defense.... 8 

plans for 21 

National Guard 13 

Officers, administrative and line 17 

Operations and training section, general staff 40, 45 

Operations, theater of 23 



INDEX 57 

Page 

Ordnance officer 45 

Organization, basis of 17 

definitions of 7 

for administration 47-54 

for war 7 

in peace 18 

purpose. , 7 

tactical. 27-35 

territorial 22-26 

Organized militia. 13 

Organized Reserves 15 

Overseas garrisons 18 

Peace, organization in 18 

Peace to war footing 19 

Personal contact by commanders 37 

Personnel section, general staff 40, 45 

Plans for national defense 21 

Policy, military 8 

Ports of embarkation 23 

Postal officer 45 

Preparation for war 8 

Principles underlying command 37 

Provost marshal 45 

Purpose of organization l 7 

Quartermaster 45 

Railways. 50 

operations of 50 

Regular Army, functions of 10 

Reserve, General Headquarters 27 

Reserves, the Organized 15 

Seacoast areas 25 

Sections of the general staff 40, 45 

Sections of the communications zone 25 

Sectors, seacoast 25 

Signal company 45 

Signal corps with railways 51 

Signal officer 45 

Special troops 31 

Staff 38-46 

of a division, diagram. 45 

of lower units 46 

purpose of 41 

technical and administrative 42 

the general 40 

Supervision, direct and indirect 46 

Supply section, general staff 40, 45 

Supply, system of 48 

Surgeon 45 

Tactical organization 27-35 

units 17 

Tank commander 45 

Technical staff 42 

Territorial organization 22-26 

Theater of operations 23 

boundaries of 23 

divisions of 24 



58 MILITARY ORGANIZATION 

_ Page 

Theater of war 22 

Trains 51 

Transport 50-52 

allowance of 51 

corps 51 

pool of 51 

system of 50 

Troops, classification of 17 

special 31 

Types of transport 50 

Waterways 50 

War Department 21 

War footing, transition to 19 

War Plans Division 21 

War, theater of 22 

Zone, combat 25 

communications 24 

of the interior 22